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DEFINITION: A relative pronoun (who/which/that) connects a group of words to nouns or other pronouns. For example, "The student who studies English can speak well." The RP 'who' connects the subject (student) to the verb (studies) within the Relative Clause. The RP is the hint that starts a Relative Clause. The easiest way to understand a Relative Clause is that it's a phrase that can be removed from a sentence and the sentence still makes sense: "The student can speak well."


As far as choosing correctly between 'which/that', the general rule of thumb is 'which' introduces clauses that can be removed from the sentence without changing the essential meaning of the sentence. A 'which clause' is often set off with a comma or a pair of commas. On the flipside, 'that' clauses are usually deemed indispensable for the meaning of a sentence and are not set off with commas.


HOW TO TRANSLATE: (訳し方の黄金のルール)

まず文中のwho / which / that を見つけ、その直前の単語に〇をつける。

1. Find and circle the word/phrase right before the RP.




who / which / that から始め、二つめの動詞orピリオドまで線を引く。

2. Starting with the RP, underline the sentence until you reach the second verb or the end of the sentence. In this example sentence, we underlined to the 'end of the sentence'.



3. Draw an arrow from the underlined area to the circle.





4. Excluding the underlined area, find the sentence's main verb and put a forward slash (/) on either side of it.



5. Draw a squiggly line starting from the beginning of the sentence to the first slash and write は below the slash.




6. Finally, translate the sentence to Japanese starting from the beginning of the sentence, following your markings, but keep in mind Japanese verbs are placed at the end.


彼女は 大きな目がある猫を飼っている。

she large eyes has a cat has





            この手紙を書いた女性はマリです。              これらはあなたのお母さんが作った人形ですか。




Battleship: Students ask Relative Pronoun questions while trying to bomb their enemy.


Day at the Zoo: This is a classic logic puzzle. The students must read and understand the relative pronoun sentences in order to solve the puzzle. There are familiar characters in the puzzle to make it more interesting!


Find Someone Who: Students ask each other questions about whether they've been to various locations / done various activities


Fountain of Youth: In teams, students try to piece a story together.


Let's Teach About Japan: Students teach each other about Japanese culture using relative pronouns.


Man Who Sold The World: A 2 part game where students listen to Nirvana's "The Man Who Sold The World" and answer questions followed by a guessing game of famous people.


Movie Star: Students play as movie directors and choose their classmates for different roles. Then they interview each other to find out what they want to do in the movie.


Relative Jeopardy: Students practice understanding the grammar points by playing Jeopardy.
Relative Matching: Students learn the distinction in the use between the relative pronouns 'who' (persons) and 'that/which' (places or things).
Relative Pronoun Matching: A find your partner game where students use slips of paper to complete a relative sentence.
Relative Park Drawing: Students listen to a description of a park scene and they must draw it.
Stevie Wonder Double-Dare: Students learn about Stevie Wonder by playing a game and listening to Stevie Wonder songs, and of course, practicing Relative Pronouns.
That/Which Matching: Students enjoy matching two parts of a sentence together using relative pronouns.
This Is a Worksheet: Students receive half of a sentence and they must write the missing relative clauses.
Where Does Wendy the Witch Live: Students listen or read the clues to a logic puzzle using the relative clause while trying to figure out where Wendy the witch lives.  
Which Worksheet: Students identify world famous landmarks and practice writing relative pronoun sentences.
Who is Famous: Students use the relative pronoun 'who' to give hints to their partners. Their partners then try to guess who the famous person is.
Who Which: Groups race to turn Japanese Relative Clause sentences into English ones.
Who Worksheet:Students first match names to photos, then write sentences using the relative pronoun who.





This page was last modified on Monday, December 01, 2014 12:50:37 PM