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FUN FACT: "Kanji is not particularly taught at school past the 8th grade (JHS grade 2)." (source, pg 5)


DEFINITION: A reduced relative clause is also referred to as a Zero Clause or in many EFL environments as a Contact Clause. Do not be confused; all three terms mean the exact same thing. To put it simply, this grammar point simply removes the most basic of relative pronouns (that/which/who) from the relative clause and the sentence still makes sense: "This is the book that I bought at the bookstore."


Also, if the sentence is in passive form, along with the relative pronoun, the helping verb ('be' verb) can also be removed: "The people that areanswering the telephones are operators."


My JTE has a unique mathlish way of explaining this grammar point to her students but it seems to sink into their heads. Take the following example sentence:



The circled words (a pen) are defined as the 'main role' (主役 しゅやく) of the sentence and it is directly connected to a subject (I) and verb (lost). NOTE: the 'subject' and 'verb' underlined are not the main subject and verb of the sentence, rather the subject and verb of the reduced relative clause. Finally, my JTE told her students these kinds of sentences are translated in the following order: main subject, RRC subject, RRC verb, main role, and finally the main verb.(これは私が昨日無くしたペンです。)




Connect 4: Students try to collect 4 passive cards of the same kind playing a game similar to Go Fish.
Fill-in-the-Blanks (Reduced Relative): This is a simple worksheet to test and practice understanding of reduced relative clauses. It was created more as a review worksheet.
Gackt Riding A Rollercoaster: A listening quiz where students guess the famous person by what they're doing.
Know Miffy: Students ask each other reduced relative clause questions to gather various peoples' names.

Prized Possessions: Students show their group five Prized Possessions and describe each.


Shadow Guess: A silhouette quiz with the entire class followed by a similar quiz done in pairs.


Shopping with the Stars: Students choose a star and go shopping for all the things that their new stardom requires of them.


The Man Wearing a Striped Shirt:Students must find Waldo/Wally and other people in the picture before other groups!


This Is a Game I Played: A simple speaking and listening Janken-focused sugoroku that has students say, "What's this?" "This is a ..." many times.


Titanic: Students play the classic "Discovery" game to complete an information gap activity about the Titanic.

What is the Food Made From...: This 3-part activity starts with students listening to a dialogue between the JTE and ALT.Then, they play Bingo and finish off with a writing exercise.


What is the Best Interview: Students fill in their own answers and then ask their classmates questions such as, "What's the best movie you have ever seen?"


Who Are You: Students practice listening and writing using the visual guidelines and directives from the ALT.


Who's Doing What: This 3-part activity starts with students listening to a dialogue between the JTE and ALT.Then, they play Bingo and finish off with a writing exercise.





This page was last modified on Friday, October 31, 2014 12:02:21 PM