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Go: JHS Grammar PageSUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS (because & when)

従属接続詞  (じゅうぞくせつぞくし)


FUN FACT: "Unprosperousness is the longest word in English in which each letter is used at least two times."  


DEFINITION: A subordinate conjunction comes at the beginning of a dependent clause and establishes the relationship between the dependent clause and the rest of the sentence. If the SC is used at the beginning of the sentence, it is common to add a comma after the dependent clause containing the SC: "When I open the textbooks, I want to be sick."


There are different types of subordinate conjunctions, depending on how they are being used:

  • ...of time (時間): when, whenever, while, as soon as, until, before, after, since
  • ...of reason (理由): because, as, since, so
  • ...of result (結果): so...that, such...that
  • ...of purpose (目的): so that
  • ...of condition (状況): if, in case, unless, as long as
  • contrast or concession (対照や譲歩): although, even though


EXAMPLE: "I am going to the store because I want to buy bread."


NOTE: The grammar point 'because' is connected to different grammar points depending on which textbook you use. For example, the New Horizon series connects the grammar point to 'infinitives' but most of the other textbook series connect them to the question word 'why'.


NEW HORIZON: "Do you use computers? Why?" "...To play games. ...To exchange emails. ...To surf the internet."

OTHER TEXTBOOKS: "Why did Emi go to the U.S.?" "Because she wanted to study English." (It's important to note that the answer is a fragmented sentence.


Because most of the textbooks connect the question word 'why' to the subordinate conjunction 'because', that is the reason you have most likely been directed to this particular grammar page.




Because Comics: A worksheet of silent cartoon strips, in which students make the questions and answers.
Because Natto: Students take turns asking each other why they have various things in certain locations.
Major World Cities: Students choose three places they would like to go to and write their reasons for wanting to go to that country.
Memory: Match the cards with the 'Why' question to the 'Because' answer, followed by a short interview game.


Pachinko: Students learn about teachers' lives by guessing true or false.
Plane Crash: The students are given a plane crash scenario and they must choose objects from the crash to carry with them to survive.

Spontaneous Interviews: Students sit down next to random students and conduct a quick interview.


True/False Betting: Have the students write a sentence about themselves that is true or false. Have the class bet on it. Win the money, go home happy etc.


Want to Go to Saizeriya: Students think of reasons to complete the sentences.


Want to Pachinko: Students play a true/false betting game by guessing the ALT's sentences, much like Englipedia's Mastermind game. This is a good review activity to practice reading infinitive sentences and Subordinate Conjunctions.

When Adventures: Students use their imagination and creativity to make "when" + past tense continuous sentences. An example of a 'past tense continuous' verb is: was taking.

When I Am / Was (wrksht only): This worksheet lets students practice the grammar through reading, speaking, and listening. 


When I Conjunctions: Students make sentences using the conjunction 'when' and then play a game as a class.

When-Listening and Writing: Students listen to sentences, then write what they hear. There are also a few questions to answer.


When Mario Called Me: Students make groups and take turns saying "when" sentences to make other students mark stars off of their worksheets. The last student with stars left on their sheet is the winner.


When You Janken Interview: Interview while playing Janken.


Willy Wonka: Students match cards to complete the puzzles after they watch the Willy Wonka movie.


Wish List: Students draw and write about presents they would like to receive for Christmas.





This page was last modified on Monday, January 25, 2016 04:23:38 PM